Chittagong’s language, culture and Karnafuli Tunnel!

Chittagong's language, culture and Karnafuli Tunnel!

Chittagong is located in the South Eastern part of Bangladesh. Chittagong is one of the most important Districts of Bangladesh. Hello friends how are you all? I hope you are well. Today I am starting with an important division of our country which is called Chittagong. Through today’s post, I will tell you how important Chittagong is for our country. And I will tell you about the origin of Chittagong. Cox’s Bazar is the main attraction of Bangladesh in Chittagong. And I will tell you about the origin of Chittagong. So read the whole post carefully only then you will know everything.

An administrative region of Chittagong Division is called. Chittagong is considered to be the country’s largest sea port, commercial capital and second largest city. Experts differ on the origin of the name iss Chittagong. An idea is made about the origin of the name Chittagong. Twelve Auliyas who came to spread Islam in this region in the thirteenth century have lit a big lamp and placed it on a high place in a large area. In the regional language the word ‘Chati’ means lamp and the word ‘Gaon’ means village.


Chittagong Sea Port

It is believed that Chittagong district was formed in 1666. Chittagong consists of three hill districts. Chittagong Hill District was formed in 1860. Later Chittagong was split and became Cox’s Bazar district. Chittagong City Corporation was born on July 31, 1990. Trade: Chittagong port is considered to be the only natural sea port in the world. Chittagong EPZ, built in Halishahar in 1983, is believed to be the country’s first export processing zone. 328 heavy industries were set up in the district. These include jute mills, textile mills, cement factories, leather factories, ship-breaking and ship-building industries, etc.


Natural resources of Chittagong

Chittagong’s natural beauty means lush land. Karnaphuli, Haas, Mur and Sadhu are famous as the main rivers of the district. The gas field Sangur, discovered in 1994, began to be extracted from 1998 and sent to different parts of Bangladesh. As salt is cultivated in coastal areas, there is no shortage of salt in Bangladesh. The tradition of fish farming in Chittagong district is said to be ancient. From the source of Halda river to Madunaghat is said to be the natural breeding ground of fresh water fish. Another tradition of Chittagong is making shutki fish. Dry fish is available from the islands like Sonadia, Sandwip etc.


Chittagong in the liberation war

On March 27, 1971, the Declaration of Independence was read out for the second time from Swadhin Bangla Betar Center in Kalurghat on behalf of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. This area was known as the most important area during the entire nine months of the war.

Chittagong's language, culture and Karnafuli Tunnel!

Literature and culture of Chittagong

The songs written in Chittagong’s regional language have gained a lot of popularity in the world. It is known that music, dance, drama, jatrapala, poetry, folk music have always been practiced in this region. The ‘Mezban’ of the Muslim community is considered to be the tradition of the district. The tribal community also observes various folk rituals. The size of the original budget for the financial year 2022-23 was from 5 lakh 6 Chittagong. Friends, that’s it for today. See you with another new post. Thank you all.


Karnaphuli tunnel of Chittagong

It is planned to build a large commercial zone on the other side of the Karnaphuli river to build the port city of Chittagong on the model of One City Two of China. Karnaphuli tunnel will connect the main city of Chittagong on one side and Anwara upazila of Chittagong on the other side. The length of this stretch is 3.32 km. Each tube is 2.45 km in length and 10.80 m in diameter. Each tube will have two lanes for a total of four lanes.

Although the tunnel has a core length of 3.32 km, it will have over five km of connecting roads on both sides and a 727 m long flyover on the Anwara section. Starting from the side of Never Academy in Chittagong City, this tunnel will reach the southern end of the river through the middle of Chittagong Urea Fertilizer Limited and Karnaphuli Fertilizer Limited factories at Anwara Corner on the southern side of the river. The tunnel has been constructed at a depth of 150 feet in the Karnaphuli River.


Foundation laying of Karnaphuli tunnel

Dhaka-Chittagong and Cox’s Bazar highways will be connected through this tunnel. If the tunnel is built, it will be the first tunnel route in Bangladesh. Not only this, it is the first and longest road bridge built under any river in the whole of South Asia. When the Bangabandhu Tunnel is opened, the vehicles coming from different parts of the country including the capital city of Dhaka will not have to enter the main city of Chittagong anymore. The destination can be reached quickly through the city router ring road.

As a result, the traffic pressure in Chittagong city will be reduced a lot, besides the distance from Dhaka to Cox’s Bazar will be reduced by about 50 km and the distance from Chittagong to Cox’s Bazar will be reduced by about 15 km. As a result, the tourism industry of Chittagong and Cox’s Bazar will develop around the Karnaphuli tunnel. On October 14, 2016, the Prime Minister of Bangladesh and the President of China laid the foundation stone of Karnaphuli Tunnel.

Bangabandhu’s daughter Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina officially inaugurated the construction of the tunnel on 24 February 2019, named “Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Tunnel”. A Chinese company  name “China Communication and Construction Company Limited” is implementing this tunnel construction project already.

The construction of the Karnaphuli tunnel was supposed to be completed by December 2022. About 95% of the two tunnels including two tunnels under the river have already been completed. Now installation of generator for continuous electricity supply of tunnel, installation of air and oxygen transportation technology, installation of decorative wall, firewall, open card area, cable line lighting with canopies are going on. But experimentally, cars have already been driven through this tunnel under the river. The authorities have asked for another 6 months to complete the work. One lane of color is likely to be launched in December this year and it will take till October 2023 to open the full stretch.

Karnaphuli tunnel can be reached by five roads from Chittagong city. The roads are (1) Outer Ring Road, (2) Elevated Expressway, (3) Kathgarh Road, (4) Airport Road and (5) Patenga Bij Road. The entrance to the tunnel will be from these five roads. On the other side of Chittagong city, south of Karnaphuli river, there are also China EPZ, Chittagong Urea Fertilizer Factory, Par Ki Beach and many private industrial areas under construction. Matarbari power plant and Matarbari deep sea port can be easily traveled through this road. Besides, there will be a revolutionary change in communication between Chittagong Port Chittagong Shah Amanat Airport and Mir Sarai Economic Zone.


Due to the Bangabandhu Tunnel, the country’s largest economic community will develop up to Cox’s Bazar. Besides, this tunnel will be a significant part of the Asian Highway. Businessmen have taken the initiative to set up at least eighty industries including garments, shipbuilding, edible oil, fish processing, steel and cement on the south bank of Karnaphuli.

As the work of Bangabandhu Tunnel progresses, new industries are being established. Along with that many new investments are coming. Many of the old factories in the area are being expanded. Already, four garment factories have been added to the Korean EPZ and preparations are underway to invest in 15 more domestic and foreign garment factories in the China EPZ. Currently, only 2 percent of the land in this region is used for industrial purposes. About 27 percent of the land here is likely to be used for industrial development once the tunnel opens. Hundreds of companies including top industrial companies Akiz Group, Pertex Group have bought thousands of acres of land to set up factories in Anwara Upazila.

At present, Cox’s Bazar is connected to other parts of the country through Chittagong through Shah Amanat Bridge and Kalurghat Bridge. Both transport cost and time will play out when the Karnaphuli tunnel opens. As the region has an international standard deep sea port and airport, economic activities centered around the Karnaphuli Tunnel will gain momentum.


Cost of tunnel construction

The initial cost of constructing the tunnel under the Karnaphuli river was estimated at Tk 9,880 crore. Later this expenditure stood at Tk 10,374 crore. According to the agreement, Exim Bank of China is providing a loan of Tk 5,913 crore. The entire amount is to be repaid within 20 years with interest at the rate of two percent. Besides, Bangladesh government is giving the rest of the money for the project.

However, the cost of Bangabandhu Tunnel has been increased. An additional Rs 700 crore will be required to complete the construction of the tunnel. Project officials say the increase in the value of the dollar has increased the cost of the project. Besides, buying a new scanner for the tunnel will cost about Tk 400 crore. In all, the total cost of the tunnel will exceed 11 thousand crore rupees.

Chittagong's language, culture and Karnafuli Tunnel!

Determination of toll of Karnaphuli tunnel

Tolling of Karnaphuli tunnel is an important issue. Even though the toll of Padma Bridge is high, there is no alternative to Padma Bridge. Therefore, the vehicles are forced to pay more toll to cross the Padma river. But since Karnaphuli Tunnel has an alternative route, most people will use Shah Amanat Setu if the toll rate is high in this project. In that case, this tunnel built at such a cost will not be of much use to the people. The benefits of the Karnafuli Tanner can be largely lost due to insufficient planning in its vehicle system. As five major roads converge at the entrance of this bridge.

So the vehicle will generate considerable pressure. 12 defects have been identified including traffic management at the under construction roundabout in Patenga beach area. Cars will come and go in the tunnel through this round square. That is, the Chittagong Development Authority was responsible for the necessary road and traffic management planning towards Chittagong city and the bridge department was given the responsibility for planning the infrastructure and necessary management at the southern end of the tunnel i.e. towards Anwara.

Besides, the Bangladesh Bridge Authority, the implementing organization of the tunnel project, the construction company China Communication Construction Company Limited and Avi Arab & Partner Hong Kong Limited jointly conducted a technical and economic study of the construction of the tunnel. But no plan or study has come up with the real potential of traffic.

The study estimated that 6.3 lakh vehicles could pass through the tunnel in the first year of tunneling and 15.9 lakh vehicles per year after 2030 after the opening of Cox’s Bazar deep sea port and economic zones. Half of it will be meritorious vehicles. Initially, traffic through the tunnel is normal, but after ten years, the traffic in the tunnel will be abnormally disrupted. Everyone is sure about that.

Also, there are multiple road junctions near the tunnel and there is a lot of complexity in the system of passing from one road to another. Bridge Authority and Chittagong Development Authority are blaming each other for this mismanagement. Experts say such errors in such a big Megha project cannot be called planned development. It’s more like a temporary fix with a pair of claps.

Another point of concern is that there is no exception in the area of about 1.1 km from Patenga to the Naval Academy. Experts fear that water entering through this part of the estuary may flood the Karnaphuli tunnel during high tides. The project authorities claim that there is no chance for water to enter the tunnel due to the flat gate in the tunnel. However, the Chittagong Development Authority, citing the issue as risky, says that a wall will be constructed here on the model of the Outer Ring Road dam. It is desired by all that no accident should happen in this expensive project built with the money of the people of Bangladesh.



Economic analysts believe that the development of the region will contribute greatly to the economy of the entire country if the Karnaphuli tunnel is fully operational. Like the Karnaphuli line, Dhaka Metrorail, one of the most ambitious projects in the country, has several parts. Out of this, construction of only three lines will cost about 1 lakh 30 thousand crores. If you want to know how the Dhaka Metrorail will look like with a combination of skyway and subway, please follow our next post thanks.

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